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2014年4月全国自考“英语写作”试题

2014-06-21 08:29:39  来源:北京自考热线
I. Supply the missing paragraph. (20 points)
The following passage is incomplete with one body paragraph missing. Study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph in about 100 words.Make sure that your tone and diction are in unity with the passage provided.
The Positive Effects of Owning a Dog on Children
Dogs are the best friend of children. The dog and the child teach each other things and they look after each other. Owning a dog can have positive effects on a child’s development. Having a dog develops a child’s sense of responsibility, broadens his capacity for empathy, and teaches him the nature of friendship.
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Another lesson that a child can learn from having a dog is how to be empathetic. A dog cannot express itself with speech, so its owner must learn to understand what the dog’s behavior means. Is the dog frightened, aggressive, or sick? The child needs to understand what is going on in the dog’s mind. The result of learning to read a dog’s behavior is that the child develops mpathy. By learning how to empathize with a dog, the child also learns how to empathize with other people. This leads to the child becoming a more considerate and caring person.
Being considerate and caring are important characteristics in a good friend.One of the most significant benefits of owning a dog is the example of true friendship that a dog provides. A dog gives unconditional love to its owner. A dog will not stop loving its owner because of a little anger, indifference, or neglect. A dog will wait patiently for its owner to pat its head and say a few kind words. This acceptance of the negative qualities and appreciation for the positive qualities of its owner provide a wonderful model of how to be a good friend. A child who has learned to be as good a friend to others as his dog is to him will have learned one of the most valuable lessons in life.
These are some of the most important lessons a child will ever learn. The benefits of owning a dog will last in the child’s entire lifetime. The understanding and appreciation of responsibility, empathy, and friendship that a child develops from the experience of having a dog will help him or her grow into a reliable, caring, and mature adult.
II. Write an outline. (20 points)
Read the following passage carefully and compose a “topic outline” for it.
Acting out Metaphors Encourages Creative Thinking
It happens in schools, offices, and boardrooms everywhere: someone working on a project hits a mental block. A boss or teacher might resort to a metaphor like “think outside the box” or “put two and two together,” encouraging a creative solution to the problem. As it turns out, this isn’t just abstract advice. According to an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, literally working outside of a box or putting two halves of something together just might help those creative juices start flowing again.
Since physical metaphors regarding creativity are so common and appearing in several different languages, a group of researchers hypothesized that they may extend beyond mere metaphors. Their study indicates that acting out metaphors literally can affect how our minds work.
In the first part of the study, the researchers asked 102 undergraduates to perform a Remote Associates Test (RAT), in which the subjects were given three seemingly unrelated words and asked to come up with a word that relates to each one. For example, the subject might be given “measure,” “worm,” and “video,”and the correct response would be “tape.”
The participants were divided into three groups; one group was asked to perform this task while sitting inside a 5’ by 5’ cardboard box, another group sat outside the same box, and those in the third group performed the task without a box in the room at all. None of the participants knew the hypothesis behind the study; they were merely told it was an experiment on different working environments.
There was no difference in performance between those inside the box and those with no box at all. However, the participants that were seated outside the box did much better on the RAT than the other two groups. Apparently, something about literally “thinking outside the box” encourages creativity.
A second experiment looked at another well-known piece of advice: to “put two and two together” to come up with an answer. In the study, 64 subjects were divided into two groups. The first group had to perform a RAT while joining halves of cut paper cards from piles on each side of a desk. The second group performed a similar task, but only had to move card halves from one side of a desk to the other side. Those “putting two and two together” by uniting the two halves of the cards did far better on the RAT than those that were merely moving the cards from one pile to another.
So, acting out metaphors linked to creativity really can help us think creatively. In fact, it does more than let us access the knowledge we presently have; it encourages us to come up with new, unique and creative ideas. Next time you’re stuck on a problem, take a minute to ponder—or even act out—your favorite metaphor, and you might happen upon a great solution.
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IIl. Compose an essay. (60 points)
People are more and more concerned about the environment. Write a 300-word expository essay stating your opinion about what we can do as individuals to improve our environment.
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