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自考英语翻译完整技巧篇

2013-08-16 13:25:19  来源:北京自考热线
  一、传统教材与新教材的关系从今年始,英汉互译的自学考试将由全国高等教育自学考试指导委员会统一组织实施和管理。这对统一全国考生的要求,提高翻译实践能力和水平都是件好事。目前,相关的统编教材,由庄绎传所编写的《英汉翻译教程》已出版发行。这本教材采用了与传统教材不一样的编写思路。不再是以词、句为单位进行翻译方法,如直译、意译等方法及词类转换,增词、减词之类的技巧进行学习,而是直接进入篇章,以各种文体的篇章为单位进行练习。这是一种创新,是有助于提高考生实际翻译能力的。因为我们在翻译实践中很少情况只是译词或译句,而是篇章的翻译。所以,这将更接近于我们的工作实际了。但这也会为初学翻译的学生带来一些不利条件,那就是对翻译的基本方法与技巧缺乏认识。所以在新教材的第404 有关说明与实施要求中提到参考书,明确指出由张培基等人编写的《英汉翻译教程》(上海外语教育出版社)一书,以及吕瑞昌等人编写的《汉英翻译教程》(陕西人民出版社)一书仍是重要的参考书,我认为作为初学翻译的同志这两本书是一定要看一看的。

  当然这两本教材也有其明显的不足,即仅以词、句为单位探讨翻译,而没有进入篇章的层次。我们如果把两种教材结合起来,以老教材为辅,以新教材为主,会有较好的成效。

  二、篇章翻译的几个问题首先,凡是一个篇章,就会遇到文体的问题,就是我们必须明确我们所要译的文章是文学作品还是科学、法律方面的文章,是一篇简介性的文字还是一篇讲演词。因为不同文体的文章在表现形式上是很不一样的,如法律文体有一些法律常用词语,科技也会各自有一些专门术语,应用文有时有严格的格式要求,文学则更为复杂,因为其中对话,描述,心理描写,景物或人物描写又各有不同。议论文句式严谨,语言正式,长句较多,等等,这在遣词用句上都有差异。这本教材在P395课程内容与考核目标都有粗略的说明。请学员认真看一下,并可结合其他有关参考书丰富其内容,以便有更好的掌握。

  其次是语域问题。

  所谓语域register)是指具有某种具体用途的语言变体,我们可以从交际领域、交际方式和交际关系把语言分成不同的语域,如从交际双方的社会地位和社会关系来说,英语可以分为冷漠体,正式体,商量体,随便体,亲密体等五种,如果从交际领域来分又可以分成正式体,半正式体,公共核心体,半非正式体,非正式体等。不同的语域语言变体彼此是有区别的,如果用几个简单的例子来说明一下就会看得很清楚。如汤姆病了,今天没去上学,如果说Tom didn‘t go to school because he was ill. 这就是一句公共核心语,而如果说Tom was ill so he didn’t go to school.这就是口语体,即非正式语体,如果说:Being ill Tom didn‘t go to school Tom didn’t go to school because of illness. 都是正式语体(当然这句话的内容用这种句式表达并不合适)。从中我们可以看到用原因从句的表达方式是比较正常的,用so连接的句子显得不怎么正式,用抽象名词和分词短语的形式都显得十分正式。另外有些表示相同意思的不同表示形式也有语域方面的区别。如according toin accord ance with,前者为公共核心语,而后者为正式用语,It is important It is of importance相比,也是前者为公共核心语,而后者为正式体。甚至连冠词的用法都可以表示这种区别,The horse is a useful animalA horse is a useful aninalHorses are useful animals.第一种用定冠词加单数名词表示类属的是正式用法,而用不定冠词加单数名词表示类属的则为公共核心语,最后一种,复数泛指的类属表示法则为非正式语体。所以,我们在接触一个篇章时,弄清它的语域情况是十分重要的。

  因为这将决定我们在翻译时如何选词组句,例如,我们看到下面一个句子:After an hour of climbingwe finally found ourselue‘s at zhurong Peakthe very apex of Mt Hengshantowering 1296m above the sea level.我们可以从after ……climbing这种动名词用法看出比较正式,它不是用短句表示(After we had climbed for an hour),如用短句则显得更为常见的公共核心语体,另外,apex,顶峰,巅峰,与之同义的词还有summittop 等词,但apex更为典雅,正式程度高于summit,更高于top.再有towering这一分词的使用,也说明其正式性,不是用短句(it towers 1 296m above sea level )。那么,我们在翻译这句时则用比较正式的语言,如可译为:一小时后,我们终于登上高达海拔1296公尺的衡山之巅祝融峰。而不译作:我们爬了一个钟头,终于到了祝融峰的山顶,它是衡山的最高峰,有1296公尺

  一般情况,法律、科技、报道,讲演词,政论文等都比较正式,而小说中文体,语域最复杂,要视情况而定,不可一概而论。关于这方面的更多内容可以参阅一些关于文体学,语义学等方面的书。

  最后,谈一下语篇的衔接和连贯问题。信息的传递一般都遵循由已知信息引导出未知信息的,表示已知信息(旧信息)的部分叫主位,(theme )表示未知信息的部分叫述位,(rheme )而主述位的不断推进是有一定规律的,如果破坏了这种规律,语言就不那么顺,也就是破坏了衔接与连贯。例如:At noon we picnicked in a dense forestthrough which ran a murmuring creek.The water was so clear that we could see reflections of bamboos and trees and soft lazy clouds drifting across the sky. 我们可以看出原文从时间(中午)引导出一系列新的信息,其中上文提到的那一天,在此说中午这一时间时可视为已知信息。在新信息中提到了密林中的野炊,林中有小溪,而第二句话用溪水来引导,因第一句中提到小溪,故在第二句中溪水当然已成已知信息了,它又引出一系列新的信息。所以,我们在翻译时也应如此。可译为:正午时分,我们野宴于密林深处,林中小溪潺潺流过,溪水清冽,岸边竹树,天上闲云,尽映水底。这种译文就意思上连贯,读起来顺畅。如果破坏了这种规律,情况就不同了。例如:We are met on a great battlefield of that war.We have come to dedicate a portion of the fiedas a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.It is a Hogether fitting and proper that we should do this.原文中均以we(我们)作为已知信息,引导出不同的新的信息。所以,我们在译时不应破坏它。而有的译文则没有遵守,译为:我们在这场战争中的一个伟大战场上集会。烈士们为使这个国家能够生存下去而献出了自己的生命,我们在此集会是为了把这个战争的一部分奉献给他们作为最后安息之所。我们这样做是完全应该而且非常恰当的。

  这样读起来就不顺,因为这段都是在讲我们应如何,如何,中间突然插进一个烈士们,有些突兀,故应改为:我们在这场战争的一个伟大战场上集会,是为了把战场的一角奉献给那些为捍卫国家生存而在这里英勇献身的烈士,作为他们的永久安息之地。我们这样做是完全应当的,是义不容辞的。

  这样才合乎信息传递的习惯。由于这方面的问题还有很多,所采取的模式也有好几种,不能一一列举,如果有的人感兴趣,可以看一看有关篇章语言学和有关语篇衔接与连贯方面的语言学书籍。

  鉴于《英汉翻译教程》一书有关这方面的内容没有提及,而我又认为以上几点很重要,故此多说了几句。当然,有关篇章的翻译问题还有一些,如作品或作者的风格问题,但这些问题较为复杂,也不对本科自考生做过高要求,就不赘述了。

  三、关于汉译英中的对原文理解问题新教材的特点是把英译汉与汉译英综合在一张试卷上考,但对英泽汉要求比汉译英要求高一些。这是可以理解的。但对于汉译英问题,《教程》指出汉译英时,原文是汉语,理解一般不构成很大问题。这是很容易产生误导的。其实,我们说汉语容易理解是指交际中的理解,它与翻译中的理解很不相同,翻译中的理解要深得多,透得多才行,否则极易译错。所以,我想提醒考生在汉译英时,对汉语原文一定要仔细思考才行,不可以以为一望便知,动手便译。如我们举一个小例子,来看一看汉译英时理解的困难。

  例如,我国一位领导人在谈到对台政策时,曾说过一句话:大陆和台湾统一后,大陆不派人去,军队不去,行政人员也不去,台湾的党、政、军都由台湾自己管起来。这句话一听似乎就懂,但一旦动笔来译,情况就不同了,其中不派人去该怎么译?总不能译为peoplepersons 吧!

  那又是什么呢?这时必须认真思考,参照上下文,根据讲话人的身份(是党的领袖人物),下文中党、政、军与上文中的军队不去,行政人员也不去相对照,可以断定应是指党方面的代表性人物,故可译为representatines of the Communist Party. 再如在全国英语(专业)八级考试中有一处写徐霞客的文章,说:他常选择不同的时间和季节多次重游各地名山,反复观察变换的奇景

  初学者往往字对字的翻译。如挑选译为choose,或select时间译为time. 实际上,这种情况,挑选可不译为动词,而时间根据上下文则为一日中的不同时刻。所以这句话应译为He visited and revisited the famous mountains all over the country in different hours of a day and different seasons of a year to observe the ever changing scenes.另外,选择译词时一定要吃透原文的上下文,不急于立即确定译词。例如,下面一句:三年前,他因参与了盗窃团伙而被判刑三年,在劳改农场,因表现突出被提前一年释放。

  我们的学生一看到被判刑三年马上就选择了be sentenced to 3 years‘ imprisonment.这类短语,而不注意下文的在劳改农场。实际上这句话已告诉你他判的不是坐牢imprisonment

  而是劳改,(reform through labour )。另外,句中在劳改农场一语也会被初学者直接译为on the reform farm,而实际上,根据上下文来看,这一段(包括这句话的更大的上下文)都是以时间为主线的,所以这个短语也应从时间着眼来考虑,应译为when the worked on the reform farm.这样体现的是他在农场的那段时间,而非地点。故此这句话应译为:Three years ago he was arrested and sentenced to three years‘ reform through labour.When he worked on the reform farm he be haved himself so well that he got released one year earlier. 值得一提的是,我们在be sentenced to前又加了一个动词,be arrested ,这是因为在英语中直接说be sentenced to 令人感到太突兀。在英语中这个词前常加上一个词,如be tried and sentenced to ……等。当然,这方面对初学者来说就较难一些了,暂不作要求。但却可以让同学们留心观察一些英语词汇的用法特点。

  实际上,中国学生在进行翻译实践时,理解问题出得多的并不是英译汉,而恰恰是汉译英。当然,汉译英的表达就更有难度了。因篇幅所限不再多说。

  四、如何使用新教程,并抓住难点和重点看惯传统翻译教材的学生看不惯这本教程,就是没接触过翻译教材的学生也不知该怎样使用新教材,更谈不上该怎样把握其难点和重点了。

  下面根据我个人的看法,谈一谈该如何使用新教材和如何把握难点以及重点。

  1 、翻译课不同于其他一些课程,它不仅是一些知识,更在于能力的培养上。这就是翻译的实践性。这就要求学习者一定亲自动手。这本书共分十个单元,有三十个课文,其中英译汉占三分之二(计20篇),汉译英占三分之一(计10篇),此外还有一些供练习的原文,没有附参考译文、而前面的三十篇双语阅读则附有参考译文。学习者可以根据文后提示,即介绍某文体特点的内容进行翻译练习,但先不去参考所提供的译文,待自己译好后再去对照,这样极易找出自己译文的差距与不足。然后思考一下为什么自己的译文不好,问题存在在哪儿?这样经过一段学习、实践能会有较大提高,对自己存在的问题会更清楚。对没有附译文的短文翻译练习也要做,如不知自己做得如何,可以通过社会助学,请教老师,或与别人共同商讨等方法来解决。因为考试的短文很可能从书外或这部分中选题。

  2 、认真研究提示解说小结的内容。应一句一句地仔细琢摸,一个词一个词地思考,我们细心的学生会注意到,考试题是以句子为主的,而大部分要从书上选择句子,而这部分又恰是翻译的难点,是极易成为考试的具体内容的。当然,我们并不是为了应付考试才关注这些内容的,主要是因为它们也是翻译实践中常会出现问题的地方。

  3 、关于翻译理论和语言对比。

  该书关于命题考试的若干规定中说得十分清楚。即关于英汉语对比和翻译理论的考题不超出《英汉翻译教程》的范围。也就说,只要认真把书中这部分的内容好好地看一看,这项分数就是十拿九稳的。但这部分内容也较杂乱,看书应细,可以按教材P401页的顺序去复习。如果介绍的内容是英语原文的节选,则一定首先把其意义理解。

  4 、认真研究每单元的考核要求在教材的P395页的课程内容与考核目标中,作者已将每单元的考核要求明确列出,所以,我们在做翻译实践练习时,先应看一看这里的内容,弄清重点和要点。

  做到练习时更具针对性。也对应试有好处。

  但这里所提示的一些要求有时失之过简,学员可以再找一些其他相关参考书,补充和系统某项知识。例如,第四单元中考核要求中提到数字的译法一项,可教程中所提供的内容并不全面,也不够系统,这时,你可以找一些相关的书来补充它,完善它,使自己在这一方面会有更大的收获。

  如,数字大小的表示法,数的增减以及倍数表示法,分数的表示法等,都应一并掌握,最好作出笔记,以备复习。尤其应注意一些特殊的表示法,例如英语中常用减少(缩小)……的用法,而汉语却没有,这时应用汉语的习惯表示法表示。如:Switching time of the new type transistor is shortened 3 times. 如果译为:新型晶体管的开关时间缩短了三倍。这是不合汉语习惯的,因为汉语的只用于增加”“增长之类,这时应改为:新型晶体管的开关时间缩短了三分之二,或“……缩短到三分之一。

  类似这些英汉语差异性较大的地方也往往是重点内容。

总之,英汉与汉英翻译是一种综合能力的检验,绝不是读一本翻译教程书就可以有多大提高的,每个人都应从其他各门学科,包括英语的各门课程中去吸取知识,提高能力,提高各方面的文化素质,才能以不变应万变,立于不败之地。

自考英语翻译技巧特辑

 

自考英语翻译技巧一

定语从句:定语从句是由一些关系代词或者关系副词引导的从句组成,用来修饰名词中心词。

  Person has pieced togethter the workd of hundereds of researcher around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest date when we can expect hundreds of key breakthrough and discoveries to take place.皮而森汇集了……生产出独特的千年历,这种千年历(它)能够……

  定语的翻译要特别注意位子上的变化,即:如果是单词修饰名词就放在中心词的前面,这和汉语的词序是一样的;如果定语太长,定语就要放在中心词的后面,这时就要注意断句,重复先行词,例如:1.I have the same problem as you concerning the learning of English 在学英语的问题上,我和你有同样的问题。

  2.She has a perfect figure. 她身材不错。

  3.This is indeed a most pressing problem. 这的确是一个非常棘手的问题。

  4.The only other people who knew the secret were his father and mother. 别的知道这个秘密的人就是他的父母。

  5.The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students who advise the academic authorities 有效的维持纪律通常是由一些学生来做的,而这些学生则负责给学校的领导提建议。

  6.The nomads who made these markings lived by hunting a d fishing during the last Ice Age which began about 3500 B.C. and ended about 10000 B.C.作出这些刻记的游牧人,依靠狩猎和捕鱼生活在冰河时代的晚期。这段时期大约始于公元前35000 年而结束于公元前10000 年。

  7. For several hundred years cases have been reported of children who have been reared in the wild by animals kept isolated from all social contact.在过去的几百年中,已经有记载说,确实有被动物养大的与世隔绝的狼孩的存在。

  另外,翻译成汉语时还要注意未省略关系代词和关系副词的定语从句,翻译时所遵守的原则和上述的一样:关系代词引导的定语从句:8.He is the very person whom I‘m looking for.他正是我要找的人。

  9.This is the flexible policy that our government has pursued consistently. 这就是我们政府一直追求的灵活政策。

  10.Those whose families cannot afford board and expenses can be allowed to receive scholarship.那些家里提供不起食宿的学生可以得到奖学金。

  11.There are forms that occasionally occur which should not be taught to students.有些形式是不能告诉给学生的。

  关系副词引导的定语从句:12.I took Mr. John to the village where I had spent my carefree childhood. 我把约翰先生带到我度过无忧无虑童年的乡村。

  13.I still remember the time when we studied in the same university.我还记得我们一起上大学的日子。

  具体翻译来说,定语从句的翻译可分为限制性和非限制性定语从句两种,翻译成汉语时不论是在语序方面还是重复先行词方面都有一定的讲究:

  限制性定语从句的翻译可分为以下几方面:1.前置:这种定语从句一般比较短,翻译起来比较方便,和汉语的词序完全一样,例如:a.This is the finest weather that I have ever seen this month.这是这个月我所看到的最好的天气。

  b.Our two countries are neighbors whose friendship is of long standing. 我们两国是友谊长存的友好邻邦。

  c.Teachers generally like the students who achieve high scores in tests.老师通常喜欢考试中成绩好的学生。

  d.他不是一个轻易服输的人He is not the one who will give up easily.

  以上的这些例子告诉我们,如果定语很短的话,我们可以把他象汉语一样放在中心词的前面。

  但是,有的时候,如果定语太长,读起来就不符和汉语的习惯,因此,往往要后置,重复先行词,这就是下面要提到的定语从句的后置问题,例如:

  2.后置:a. Misers are often lonely and obscure men whose wealth is revealed only after their death.吝啬鬼经常是看起来年很孤单、不为人所主意,可他们的财富只有等到他们死了以后才暴露出来。

  3.“综合性的翻译法。

  综合性的翻译就是,翻译时不需要关系词,其中的关系完全靠上下文的意思来表现出来,例如:a.This is the place where the accident occurred.这就是发生交通事故的地方。

  b.The person who delivered the letter to him is his neighbor. 他的邻居把信交给了他。

  c. There is a big oak tree that stands just in front of the village.村子前面有棵大象树d.Most of our patients welcomed another human being with whom they could talk openlyhonestly and frankly about their trouble. 大多数病人想找人坦率、诚实地倾诉他们的苦衷。

  非限制性定语从句:这里,也可以分为以下几种:1.前置:a. We need a chairman in whom everyone has confidence 我们需要一个人人都信赖的主席。

  b.The worldly well-known actor who had been ill for two years meet thunderstorm applause when reappeared on the stage.那个病了很多年的著名演员,一上台观众就报以雷鸣般的掌声。

  c. Piccaso whose works inspired many artists lived until he was a ripe old age.毕加索的作品曾鼓励了很多人,后来年纪很大时,作品也日趋成熟。

  2.后置:这里包括:重复先行词,译成并列分句。这是比较常见的翻译方法:

  a.He deposits a little sum of money in the bank by which means he hopes to deal with any potential emergency easily.我们每个月都在银行里存一些钱,这样,碰到有任何危机时,我们就可以应付了。

  b. A table has four legs one of which is broken.桌子有四条腿,其中的一条腿是坏的。

  c. Living in the central Australian desert has its problems of which obtaining water is not the least. 生活在澳大利亚中部有很多问题,其中取水还不算最艰苦的。

  d.He decided to resign which is the best thing he could do under the circumstances.他决定辞职,而这是他目前所能做的最好的事。

  e.He is late for class today as is often the case.他今天迟到了,而这是经常的事。

  以上的句子在翻译成汉语后,要重复先行词。其中的“which ”可以是指前面的整个句子,也可以单指某个先行词。

  3.省略先行词这种句行就象前面讲的综和性翻译一样,直接把整个句子的意思讲出来,例如:a.The two universities signed an agreement under which they would exchange students and scholars. 这两个大学,签定了协议,决定交换学生和学者。

  b.He caught a young soldier coming to the farmhouse whose face turned pale for too much loss of blood. 他看见一个士兵走进农舍,脸色因失血过多而苍白。

  c. He passed the exam which can be read from his the light on his face.我从他脸上就可以看出他已通过了考试。

  d. He arrived at the railway station in time which is expected .他果然准时到了火车站。

  4.译成状语从句有些作定语的句子听起来却有点象状语从句,因此翻译时可以将其译成状语似的从句:a.You should take advantage of the opportunity to learn English well which is very valuable. (原因)

  你应该利用这个机会好好学习英语,这太重要了。

  b.We examine the quality of our products which is why they are so reliable. (原因)

  我们检验产品很仔细,因此产品都很可靠。

  c.I never believe the stories which is appealing.(让步)

  我从不相信他所说的故事,即使它很动听。

  5.“as”引导的句子:除了以上这些例子以外,还有一些特殊的由“as”引导的句子,翻译时可参考“as”的比较结构从句:a. He is not such as fool as he looks 他并不象看上去的那么傻。

  b. They were not such questions as could easily be disposed of. 这些问题可不是那么容易就能处理好的。

  c. It wasn‘t such a good dinner as she had promised us.这顿饭可没有她向我们说的那么好

自考英语翻译技巧二

直译与意译

  直译是基础,意译是补充能直译就尽量直译,不能直译就采取意译

  1. Their accent couldn‘t fool a native speaker. A. 他们的口音不能愚弄本地人B.本地人是不会听不出他们是外乡人的。

  C.本地人一听他们的口音便知道他们是外乡人的。

  2. Smashing a mirror is no way to make an ugly person beautiful nor is it a way to make social problems evaporate.意译:砸镜子并不能解决实际问题。

  直译:砸镜子并不能使丑八怪变漂亮,也不能使社会问题烟消云散。

  3.He felt a rush of fear churning his stomach.直译:他感到一阵恐惧涌上胃口意译:他感到一阵恐惧涌上心头

  4. He bent solely upon profit. A. 他只屈身与利润之前B.只有利润才使他低头。

  C.他惟利是图

  5. Would there be any possibility of having breakfast on the train before we are decanted in Munich

  A.当我们在慕尼黑被腾出车厢之前有任何在火车上吃早饭的可能性吗?

  B.我们在慕尼黑被腾出车厢之前,有可能在火车上吃早饭吗?

  6. He had about as much chance of getting a job as of being chosen mayor of Chicago. A.他找到工作的机会和当选芝加哥市长的机会差不多B.他找到工作的机会简直跟当选芝加哥市长同样困难。

  C.他找到工作的机会简直微乎其微。

  正说与反说

  1.The administration was free corruption. 这届政府没有腐败现象

  2. Wet paint. 油漆未干

  3.I remained confused about the problem.这个问题我还是不懂

  4. They are dependent on each other.他们谁也离不开谁

  5. He is far from what I expected.他远不是我想象的那样。

  6. let bygones be bygones.既往不咎

  7. As was expected he passed the exam easily. 果不出所料,他轻而易举地通过了考试

  8.We will live up to what our Patty expects of us.我们决不辜负党对我们的期望。

  9. I hate the lack of privacy in the dorrnitory.我讨厌宿舍里没有独处的机会。

  10. You evidently think otherwise.你显然有不同的看法

  11. He will die of hunger before he will steal. 他宁愿饿死,也不愿去偷。

  12. That little bridge is anything but safe.那座桥一点也不安全。

  13. So far from taking my advice he went and did just what I warned in ~ainit.他不但不听我的劝告,反而去做了我警告他不要做的事情。

  14. He was more frightened than hurt. 他没有受什么伤,倒是受惊不小

  正说

  15. Don‘t unstring your shoes.把鞋带系上

  16. Ml the teachers without exception are to attend the meet Sunday. 所有的老师都要参加星期五的会议。

  17. She carne into the room without shoes on. 她光脚走进了房间。

  18. The doctor lost no tune in getting the sick man to hospital.医生立即把病人送往医院。

  19. I have no doubt that you will succeed.我相信你会成功。

  20. It‘s no distance at all to the school only a short walk. 从这到学校很近,只需要很短一段路。

  正、反说分析

  21.If he had kept his temper the negotiations would probably have been a success.如果他克制脾气,谈判可能早就成功了。

  22.Some people refrain from expressing their gratitude because they feel it will not be welcome. 有些人不愿意表达他们的感激之情,因为觉得着有可能不受欢迎。

  23. If you forward the transcripts yourself they can be considered official only if the school envelope has remained sealed. 如果证件由申请人本人递交,则本人不得擅自启封,否则证件将被视为无效。

  24. We must never stop taking an optimistic view of life. 我们对生活要永远抱乐观的态度。

  25. We strongly disapprove of the company‘ s new policy.我们强烈反对公司的新政策。

  拆句单词拆译26.Incidentally I suggest that you have the telephone moved to the sitting-room. 顺便说一句,我建议你把电话移至起居室。

  27.He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession.他有个习惯叫人受不了,意思反复不定,一会一个主张。

  短语拆译28. Throughout his life Benjamin Franklin continued his education learning from human contacts as well as from books.本杰明。富兰克林整个一生都在受教育,他不仅从书本中学习,而且也从与人交往中学习。

  29. Energy can neither he created nor destroyed a universally accepted law.能量即不能创造也不能消灭,这是一条公认的规律。

  30. The meeting ended with protestations of friendship from everyone. 会议结束,人人表示彼此将友好相处。

  31. His failure to observe the safety regulations resulted in an accident to the machinery.因为他没能遵守安全规则,机器出了故障。

  32. His weak chest predisposes him to winter colds. 他的肺部很弱,冬天容易感冒。

  33.He shook his head and his eyes were wide then narowed in in-dignation.他摇了摇头,两眼睁的圆圆的,接着有眯成一条线,脸上露出了愤怒的神情。

  句子拆译这里主要指英语复合句,尤其是长句的拆译。

  34. He had left a note of welcome for me as sunny as his face.他留下一封段信,对我表示欢迎,那信写的热情洋溢,一如其人。

  35. While I was waiting to enter university I saw advertised in a local newspaper a teaching post at a school in a suburb of London about ten miles from where I lived. 当我等着进大学期间,我在一份地方报纸上看到一则广告,说是在离我住处大约10英里的伦敦某郊区,有所学校要招聘一名教师。

  顺序法

  36. Your presumption that I would want to share a flat with you is false. 你认为我会和你同住一套公寓,那就错了 .

  37.Researchers have established that when people are mentally en-gaged biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive (认知的) areas such as attention and memory. 研究人员证实:人们在动脑筋时,头脑会产生很多的变化,使头脑在注意力和记忆力这类认知领域中更有效地活动

  38. During the ice ages human beings exposed to the colder temperatures of the time would often make their homes in caves. 在冰河时代,人们面临当时较为寒冷的气温,常常在洞穴里安家。

  逆序法

  39. It was extended and preserved in the 19th century when our nation spread across the continent saved the union and abolished the awful scourge of slavery.19世纪,我们的国家横跨大陆,拯救了联邦,废除了恐怖的奴隶制的蹂躏,这一信念才得以流传可扩展。

  40.By January 16 just a month after the beginning of the offensive on which Hitler had staked his last reserves in men and guns and ammunition the German forces were back to line from which they had set out.1 16日,德军又回到了他们当初出击的战线,这恰好是希特勒把他最后的兵力、大炮、弹药储备孤注一掷、发动进攻的一个月之后。

  41. Five score years ago a great American in whose symbolic shadow we stand bysigned the Emancipation Proclamation. 100 年前,一位伟人签署了《奴隶解放宣言》,今天,我们正是站在这位伟人富有象征意义的雕象下集会。

  变序法(综合法)

  42. Can you answer a question which I want to ask and which is puzzling me

  我有个问题弄不懂,想请教你,你能回答吗?

  43. He had cleared up those confusions which arose from different medicines that had the same name and from various names that had been given to the same substance. 药名混乱,有的由于不同药物同一名称所引起,而有的则由于同一药物不同名称所造成,他对此一一作了澄清。

  44. One teacher writes that instead of drowning students‘ compositions in critical red ink the teacher will get far more constructive results by finding one or two things which have been done better than last time and commenting favorably on them.一位老师这样写到:如果我们能从学生作文中找出一两处比上次做的更好的地方,并提出表扬性评语,而不是用红墨水把学生的作文批改的一塌糊涂,我们就能从中的更富有建设性的结果。

  45. Ours is a profession which traditionally has been guided by a precept that transcends the virtue of uttering the truth for truth‘5 sake and that is as far as possible do no harm. 我们的职业传统上格守一个信条,那就是尽可能的不造成伤害,这一信条胜过为讲真话而讲真话的美德。

  46. The president said at a press conference dominated by questions on yesterday election results that he could not explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread defeatwhich in the end would deprive the Republican Patty of Tong-held superiority in the House.在一次记者招待会上,问题集中于昨天的选举结果,总统就此发了言。他说他无法解释为何共和党遭到如此大的失败。这种情况最终使共和党在众议院中失去了长期享有的优势。

  为何要拆句?

  47.Literature offers us the knowledge of the long life which phobia have had in mankind.文献让我们了解到,恐惧症在人类中具有漫长的历史。

  48.What is good I suppose is that many people a“e concerned about TV‘ s influence and that we have the power to change what we don’ t like. 我看,好在有许多人关心电视的影响,而我们也有能力改变我们所不喜欢的东西。

自考英语翻译技巧三

 

英汉互译时的词序问题I.两种语言的总体比较:一方面,英汉两种语言都是按照事物发展的客观规律进行的,因而有其共同点,例如:In order to communicate thoughts and feelings people invented a conventional system of signs or symbols which mean the same to the sender and the receiver. (为了更好的交流思想和感情,人们设计出了通常用的标记和符号系统,而这标记和符号交流双方都能看的懂。)

  以上的几个例句在英汉两种语言里的词序都是一样的;而除此以外,还存在着很多不同点。另一方面,两种语言又有许多不同点。下面就英汉两种语言的不同点进行比较:汉语比较注重事物发展的客观顺序,先发生什么,后发生什么,结果怎样,最后才加上作者的评论和观点,不管有多少动词都可以并列、排比使用,不会出现词法、句法等的冲突 .主题显著,突出主题,而非单单的一个主语,注重句子的意和,这就要求我们透过句子的表层结构,深入到句子的内涵,先抓整体印象,充分理解过以后再把原文的意思形象翻译出来。

  而英语则不然,英语突出主语,往往是评论、观点在前,叙述、原因在后;表面形式上追求句子的形和,对句子的结构要求非常严谨,特别强调句子结构的平衡,往往借助于句法、词法(如主从句、分词、不定式等手段)来维持句子表面上的平衡、完整性,极力避免句子的头重脚轻(因此,也就出现了许多“it is said that …”等等无主句)。所以,英文则是把作者的观点、主张放在前面,以后再跟着原因、结果和目的等等从句。这些现象在新闻英语里尤其明显,难怪有人说,汉语的句子结构好比一根竹子,一节一节地连下去,而英语的句子结构好比一窜葡萄,主杆可能很短,累累的果实附着在上面。具体情况如下:

  II. 英汉互译时的时间顺序对比:1.The old-fashioned general store is fast disappearing.This is perhaps a pity because shopping today seems to lack that personal element which existed when shop keeper knew all his regular customers personally. 旧时的百货店很快就消失了。过去,店主私下里都认识他的老主顾们,而在今天这种事情再也不复存在了,这实在是太可惜了。

  2.American education owes a great deal to Tomas Jefferson ……

  托马斯。杰弗逊为美国的教育作出了很大的贡献。

  下面的句子属倒装句型,是典型的英汉在翻译时的顺序差异:

  1.Under the dust was a color map of Paris.(巴黎地图上布满了灰尘。)

  2.Written on the card was a message under the printed Happy Birthday. (卡片上生日快乐字样的下面写着一条消息。)

  正是由于以上的原因,才会出现两种语言在思维习惯、逻辑推理上的不同:

  III.英汉互译时逻辑思维顺序上的差异:如上所述,如果一个句子里既有叙事的部分,又有表态的部分,在汉语里往往是叙事在前,表态在后,叙事部分可以很长,表态部分一般都很短。而在英语里则往往相反,表态在前,叙事在后。例如:1.表原因:a ……I am very happy and grateful to receive your message of greetings.接到你们的贺函,我十分愉快和感谢。

  不过,处理这种句行时要注意英汉互译时的顺序问题,例如:

  My friend asked the question when I told him that I didn‘t want to be considered for an administrative position. He was puzzled that I did not want what was obviously a “step up” toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up money and power. 所有美国人受的教育就是:长大成人后应该追求金钱和权力,而我却偏偏不要明明是朝这个目标迈进的工作,他对此大或不解。

  2.表目的The two sides agreed that it is desirable to broaden the understanding between the two peoples.双方同意,扩大两国人民之间的了解是可取的。

  3.表条件和结果时的顺序:a.One can never succeed without making great 1(结果) 2(条件)

  efforts.译文:(不努力就不会成功。)

  2 (条件) 1(结果)

  4.在表示让步的句子里,通常也是原因在前,结果在后:Young as he is he works hard.(尽管他很年轻,可他工作很买力。)

  另外:下面的这个句子也可以视为结果一类的句子,它的英汉两种语言的顺序很能说明问题:

  c.在当今的教育界,已经涌现出了大批的优秀人才。

  Large numbers of talented persons have come to the fore in today‘s education circle.

  d. Little is known about the effect of life-long drinking.人们关于终生饮酒的效果却知道的很少

  III.因语法手段而造成的英汉次序不一1.另外一些表示存在句的句子里也可见到大量的英汉次序不一的现象:There was rising in him a dreadful uneasiness something very precious that he wanted to hold seemed close to destruction.(他心里涌起一种难言的焦灼,因为他原来一直想保住的东西现在好象要毁灭了。)

  另外,英语里的有些形式主语也大都采用了倒装词序:2.无主句:It suddenly dawned on me that this express was not roaring down the line at ninety miles an hour but barely chugging along at thirty.(后来,我才突然明白,这次快车并非以90英里的时速疾弛而下,而只不过是以30英里的时速慢慢向前行驶。)

  It is reported that …………

  3.在某些表示融合性的定语从句中:a.There are many people who want to see the film.(许多人要看这部电影)

  b.There is a man downstairs who wants to see you. (楼下有人要见你)

  4.倒装句形a.Not a single word have we written down as yet.(否定)

  (我们连一个字都没有写。)

  b.Little does he realize the danger he is in(否定)

  (他一点都没有意识到危险性。)

  IV. 因句子结构转换而造成的词序不一:Cold drinks will be available at the Sports Center.运动中心也提供冷饮。(状语转译成主语)

  V.注意下面的一些特殊的结构:

  中国自从改革开放以来,发生了很大的变化。

  有人竟然翻译成:1.误:Since China ‘s policy of reform and opening China has taken place a great many changes.

  正:A great many changes have taken place in China since the policy of reform and opening to the outside world.

  2.轮子是公元前六世纪发明的。

  600 B.C. saw the invention of wheel.

自考英语翻译技巧四

英汉互译时的词性转换

  I.英语的名词转译成汉语的动词:英汉两种语言具有不同的辞语结构。在汉语里,一个句子可以有多个动词并排使用,不管有多少动词,都可以按照先后的顺序一个一个地排下去;而英语则是一门静止的语言,在同等条件下,选择用名词的情况居多数,例如:

  1.在名词转译成动词的句子中:a. My shock and embarrassment at finding Mother in tears on Wednesday was a perfect index of how little I understood the pressures on her(我星期三发现妈妈在流眼泪而感到震惊、尴尬,这就表明我对妈妈所承受的压力知道的多么少。)

  在这个句子当中,shock embarrassment index等等都是英语趋向于用名词而不用动词的最好例子b. Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion and they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores.(他们一想到在公共场穿不时髦的衣服,就感到浑身不自在,而一些商店和设计师们正是利用了他们的这种弱点。)

  c. As a boy and then as an adult I never lost my wonder at the personality that was Einstein. (不论是在儿时还是长大以后,我一直都对爱因斯坦的人格感到很好奇。)

  d. Most of my friends live in the city yet they always to into raptures at the mere mention of the country. (我的大多数朋友都住在城里,然而,他们只要一提起乡村就欣喜若狂。)

  e. The availability of information on the INTERNET for example widens the possibilities of informal education immensely.(比如,由于人们能在INTERNET网上可以得到信息,这就大大扩大了获得非正规教育的可能性。)

  2.在一些特定结构中,如:介词+ 名词= 副词a. It is wise of him to deal with the delicate problem with care and with calmness.(他很明智,在处理这一敏感问题时及尽仔细和谨慎。)

  b. Einstein watched it in delight trying to deduce the operating principle.(爱因斯坦很欣喜地看着它,想推断出其中的操作原理。)

  c. The soldier stared in surprise at the old farmer and the girl. (那个士兵很震惊地看着那个老农夫和女孩。)

  d. The old man looked closely at the row of puddings with great interest(老人很感兴趣地仔细打量起一排布丁。)

  3.由形容词变成的名词:这类词通常都是表示一类人,如:the poor/ oppressed/ exploited 4.在某些词组中a. a good case in point after a while as a result at any rate breakburst into tears go into service in a sense in addition in exchange forin other words in realityout of placerun fly into rage take account of to certain extent to his disappointment to one ‘s taste b. To his surprise Mr. Beck failed to come as expected.(奇怪的是,贝克先生来晚了。)

  c. In all probability I‘m sure that he’ll come.(我敢肯定,他完全可能来晚。)

  d. He has said in all seriousness that their performance is perfect.(他很正经地说他们的演出很成功。)

  e. I saw a man walking across the road with the obvious intention of talking to me.(我看到一个人穿过大街,明显地想跟我交谈。)

  f. Of course daydreaming is no substitute for hard work ……

  (当然,白日梦不可能代替艰苦的工作。)

  另外,还有一些句子也大量用名词而不用动词,翻译时要特别注意词性的转换,如:g. That will help lead you to the attainment of your goals. (那会有助于你达到目标。)

  h. But in combination with the more usual methods of self-development it might make a critical difference. (但是,如果与通常的自我发展的方法相结合,他就能产生很大的不同。)

  i. He said that this exercise of privilege of high-rank government officials will produce bad influence on people ‘s mind concerning our Party ’s image . (他说,政府高级官员滥用职权,将会在人们的心目中产生很坏的影响,损坏党的形象。)

  j. Those significant progress had been made in some industries the general quality of industrial products leaves much to be desired. (一些工业取得了长足的进步,但是工业产品总的质量还亟待提高。)

  k. When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion the conclusions to be drawn are obvious.(如果把男人和女人就流行款式方面作个比较,结论就很明显了。)

  l. In the light of these he puts further questions and so on. (根据这些,他又提出了另外一些问题,如此等等。)

  6.在一些特定的词组中或格式中也趋向于用名词。

  a. be ofgreat significance/ little use /no value/ some help / vital

  importance(很有意义的)/ 很有用的)/ 很有价值)/ (很有帮助)/ (很重要)

  b. My suggestion/ motion/ recommendation /idea

  is that heshould go there 我建议(想,提议,认为,主张)他去。

  7.在一些表示结果的特定词组中如: be shocked into stillness(惊呆了)

  those people who toil to death(累得要命的人)

  bore somebody to death(枯燥得要死)

  be worried to death.(担心得要命)

  8.英语的句子结构紧凑,汉语里一个有主语有谓语可以独立的分句,译成英语可能就变成了一个名词词组,这就更说明了英语的名词性特征。

  a. The outbreak of the civil war totally damaged his splendid dream of contributing what he had for his country.(战争爆发彻底破坏了他那为国奉献一切的梦想。)

  b. The train was delayed by the heavy snowfall. (火车因为积雪而晚点。)

  II. 英语的动词结构反过来转译成汉语的名词:一些由名词派生的表示意愿、情绪等的动词,在翻译成汉语时往往还将其返回来译成名词:1. This course is intended to provide aid to those women who for this reason or that fail to get the opportunity to receive education.(这门课的目的就是给那些因为种种原因没有机会上学妇女们提供帮助。)

  2.A well-dressed man who looked and talked like a millionaire turned out to penniless。 (那个穿着讲究,外表和谈吐都象百万富翁的人却身无分文。)

  3. Gordon Allport an American psychologist found nearly 18000 English words characterizing differences in people‘s behavior. (美国的心理学家高顿。爱尔波特发现有一万个英语单词可以用来表达人们行为的不同特征。)

  III.名词转移成形容词:1. The speech presented by the visiting scholar left considerable excitement in his mind(那位到访学者的演讲着实让他感到很激动。)

  2. The room is small but very cozy and his satisfaction can be read from his face.(这间房间很小但很舒适,从他脸上一眼就可看出他很满意。)

  IV. 其它词汇的转译方法:1.介词译成动词a. If it‘s academic success you’re afteryou can ‘t neglect studying. (如果你追求学术上的成功,一定不能忽视了学习。)

  b. Those who are for the program please raise your hand.(同意这项计划的人请举手。)

  c. Will those in favor of the proposal come to attend the meeting next Saturday

  (赞成这项提议的人下星期六来开会好吗?)

  d. It wasn‘t that I was after money. I just wanted to make sure that he was found guilty again in the civil suit. (并不是因为我想要钱,我只是想让他即使是在民事案件方面也被判有罪。)

  2.副词或形容词转译成名词:a. In an overcrowded country very few people own enough to make them financially independent. 在一个人口过度稠密的国家里,很少有人能在财政上独立。)

  b. To be economically prosperous China will apply more flexible policies of opening to the outside. (为了能达到经济上的繁荣,中国将实行更为灵活的开放政策。)

  c. Aside from offering financial support work can keep us healthy not only physically but also mentally.(工作除了能给我们提供财政上的支持外,还能够使我们在身体上和心理上保持健康。)

  一些短语中:To be mentally prepared …。,心理上做好准备To be materially equipped………,物资上作好准备During the politically eventful late-1960s…。,政治上正置多事之秋的60年代。

自考英语翻译技巧五

关于加词、减词等在翻译时应注意的问题。

  所谓加词就是根据原文的思想内涵透过文字表达上的表面现象,充分照顾到另一种语言的文法特征、描述规律,在将其翻译成另一种语言时该加词的地方加词,该减词的地方减词,千万不可以为了可以追求所谓的精练、简洁而随随便便地减词;也不可以离开原文,凭空腻测,随随便便加词。具体地说:

  加词:

  I.由于词汇方面的原因而引起的加词现象:1.加动词由于英语是一门静止的语言,在所有的词汇当中,用名词的居多;而相比较而言,汉语则无此限制,不管有多少动词都可以并排使用。因此,许多英语的名词翻译成汉语时都要加上一些动词,否则,意思则很不完整,例如:a. But by 1981 he had to have further surgery on his hand. And a month later he suffered as stroke. (到了1981年,他的手不得不又做了一次手术。一个月以后,他又中风了。)

  b. His speech in at the meeting turned out exert an stimulating effect on the mind of the people present that day. (他那天在会上所做的报告使所有在场的人深受鼓舞。)

  c. He maintain that only hard work and unswerving perseverance can lead to improved performance.(他坚持认为,只有通过勤奋工作加上不懈的努力才会取得好的成绩。)

  d. The lives claimed by shoddy construction projects should be enough to put governments at all levels on the alert. (伪劣建筑夺取了很多人的生命,这一点足以使我们的各级部门提高警惕。)

  e. Efforts must be made to improve service for more than 1 million domestic and overseas tourists. (为了一百万的国内外旅客的利益,我们一定为改善服务质量而进行努力。)

  f. You ought to know better than to go swimming straight after a meal.(你不应该一吃过饭,马上就去游泳,这是很不明智的。)

  2.加名词:在汉语中,及物和不及物动词的区别不是很明显,有时所谓及物动词后面的宾语如果上下文中能够看的出,往往可以省略不说;而英语则不然。由于英语对及物动词和不及物动词的区别很明显,因此翻译成汉语时则很麻烦。特别是一些不及物动词必须带上它后面的宾语句子意思才能显得完整。因此,我们在翻译时往往就需要增补。

  a. Make a schedule or chart of you time and fill in committed time such as eating playing meetings classes etc. (作一个时间表,然后,将吃饭、睡觉、开会、上课等等的时间填上。)

  b. It was two hours before the old couple mustered up enough courage to get up and called the police and they explained that they‘d done that after much deliberation.(直到两个小时以后,那对老夫妻才有勇气敢从床上爬起来给警察打电话,并解释说那也是经过仔细考虑才敢作的。)

  c.这见事据说是一个组织严密团伙干的。

  (The operation is believed to be the work of a well-organized organized group.

  d.我是为友谊和求学而来。

  (I came here in the spirit of friendship and learning.

  有时形容词前面也可以加上名词:e. His wife thinks that this furniture is too expensive and moreover looks very ugly.(他妻子认为,这件家具价格昂贵而且外表难看。)

  f. I thus appeared to them to be quite familiar with this sort of situation and it confirmed them in their belief that I was a thoroughly disreputable character.(然后,我继续装着对这种事情很内行的样子,结果更使他们认定我是一个名声很坏的人。)

  有时,一些名词或者数量词的复数形式翻译成汉语后前面也要加词表示重叠:g. Thousands of students from the city‘s colleges and universities jammed the railway station awaiting the arrival of their football team. (成千上万的高校学生一起涌到火车站欢迎他们的足球队凯旋。

  h. These she bought the medical supplies with the large sums of money given to her by many friends to help her in the Crimea (她用朋友们给她的一笔笔钱购买医疗设备。)

  i. To look after the hordes of sick men there were only a few old doctor who were helpless before such scene of suffering and misery. (只有这些老医生来照看一群群的伤员,他们在如此的痛苦、悲伤面前,显得无可奈何。

  3.加代词:这里的代词主要是指作动词宾语的代词,因为英语中的所有及物动词都必须带有宾语,所以汉语翻译成英语时也需要增补:a. If you like this novel I can lend it to you.(如果你喜欢这本小说,我可以借给你。)

  b. I think she‘d appreciate it if we all helped out a bit more.(我觉得如果我们能帮她一把,她回很感激的。)

  c. Would you please look for the key once more I remembered clearly putting it in the drawer last time. (能不能再找一遍钥匙?我记得上次放在抽屉里了。)

  4.加连词和介词:汉语可以通过上下文来连接句与句之间的逻辑关系,而英语则靠一些连接词来完成:a. If you want to go I would give you my advice that you take an umbrella.(你要去,我建议你别忘了带把伞。)

  b. Since its opening five years ago the shop has attracted a lot of customers.(这家商店五年前开业以来,吸引了大批顾客。)

  c. Since the beginning of this century more and more scientists have become interested in the way the human brain works. (本世纪以来,越来越多的科学家已经开始对人脑活动的方式感兴趣。)

  d. His friends asked him to write them as soon as he got there. (他的朋友要他到了那儿就给他们写信。)

  e. He went so far as to cheat openly on test. (他居然敢公开作弊。)

  f. The factory has decided to mass-produce the equipment at a low cost. (这家工厂已经决定低成本、大批量的生产这种仪器。)

  g. Why was he absent from school yesterday

  (他昨天为什么不上学?)

  h. The older leader gave us the suggestion that we be free from arrogance and rashness.(老领导告戒我们要戒骄戒躁。)

  i. This he said deprived him of his civil rights and he asked for $150000 in damages. (他说,这等于是剥夺了他的公民权力,因此申请$150000 的赔偿。)

  j. His marriage suffered and ended in divorce.(他的婚姻也受到影响,最后还是离了婚。)

  k. After a few rounds of talks both sides regarded the territory dispute as settled.(几轮会谈以后,双方认为边界问题可以解决了。)

  l. As her year as chief resident drew to a close Mrs. White decided to specialize in children ‘s diseases. (在她作住院总医师要结束时,怀特太太决定专攻病理。)

  5.下面的一些句子则是为了修辞目的而加词:a. He was sentenced as much as six months in jail for drunk driving.(他因酗酒驾驶而被判入狱半年。)

  b. As many as twenty people were killed in the accident yesterday.(二十个人在昨天的事故当中丧生。)

  c. I came here as early as eight o‘clock this morning. (我今天八点钟就来了。)

  6 . 在某些作定语的不定式结构中,介词有时需要加上:a. I‘d like to find someone to play with (我想找人玩。)

  b. Would you please pass me a piece of paper to write on. (你能否递张纸给我,我想写点东西。)

  c. Totally alone in the room her mother wanted to find someone to talk to (她妈妈觉得一个人在房间里太孤单了,想找个人说说话。)

  7.某些独立结构中:With a book in his hand the teacher came into the class. (老师走了进来,手里拿本书。)

  8.加副词a. They started up into the sky until the noise of the rocket died away.(他猛地抬头往天空看,直到火箭发射的声音渐渐远去。)

  b. He stole a glance at the pretty girl walking alongside with him. (他偷偷地瞥了他一眼。)

  9.有时还要根据实际需要,加上一些表示范畴的词,即表示笼统意思的单词,意见、想法、道理等等。

  a. The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will. (因此,对社会活动家来说,培养业余爱好和新的兴趣就成为头等重要的事情了。但这不是一蹴而就的事情,也不能单靠毅力就能临时凑成。)

  b. A situation in which such a large number of students cheat openly on the exam and escape punishment is very dangerous and cannot last long(如此多的学生作弊,居然没人管,是很危险的,也不可能持久。)

  c. So he began to study the children‘s responses in situation where no milk was provided(所以,他开始研究小孩子得不到牛奶时的反应是什么样的。)

  以上的几句虽然没有局面情况等词,但其意思却已经包含在了里面。如果不加上“policy”“business”“situation ”等词,意思就不是很清楚,句子也不通顺。

  II. 由于汉英结构不同而造成的加词现象:

  1.由上下文的逻辑关系而引起的加词现象:句子结构方面:a. In most cases this action will produce results. However if it does not there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction. (在大多数情况下,这样做有一定效果。如果还不行,顾客可以采取许多措施直至满意为止。)

  b. They illustrate for one thing the underlying American faith that our future rests on the way our children turn out and that a basic way to affect children‘s development is through their education. (有一点,他们表明了美国人内心深处的一个信念,那就是,我们的孩子如何成长将决定我们的未来,而影响他们发展的一个基本途径就是通过教育。)

  c. That men have learned much from the behavior of animals is hardly new. (人类已经从动物的行为中学到了很多东西的说法并不是什么新鲜事。)

  下面的例句都是一些需要加关系代词的现象:d. He passed the exam which can be read from his the light on his face. (我从他脸上就可以猜出他已通过了考试。)

  e. He was late on that very morning for the interview which totally damaged the possibilities of promotion. (他偏偏在面试的那天早晨迟到,结果丧失了一次晋升的绝好机会。)

  f. As is expected he arrived at the railway station in time. (他果然准时到了火车站)

  2.在无主句、存在句或一些祈使句中中加主语。

  因为在这些句子中,主语虽然没有表示出来,但却早已隐含在句子里面;加上英语对句子表面上的结构要求非常严谨,因此在汉语翻译成英语时往往要加上省略的部分(主语)意思才能完整,例如:a.进行社会主义现代化建设必须尊重知识、尊重人才。

  (In our drive for socialist modernization we must respect knowledge and talented people.

  b.你还是带把雨伞吧,以防下雨。

  (You ‘d better take an umbrella in case it rains.

  c.已经快七点种了,他怎么还没有到?

  ( It is nearly seven o ‘clock now why hasn ’t he arrived yet?)

  d.一定不要忘记离家前父母对你所说的话。

  (Remember what your said to you before you left home.

  有时,英语的动名词需要加上其逻辑主语才能显得意思完整:e. His father-in-law doesn‘t appreciate his smoking cigarette so heavily.(他的岳父对他抽这么多的烟很不以为然。)

  3.加宾语她妈妈说,他们应该带孩子一起去参加马丽的生日晚会。

  (Her mother said that they should bring their baby with them to Mary ‘s birthday party.

  4.有时需要加上语气词:There were no houses whatsoever when we crossed the marshlands on the Long March we just slept where we could.(我们长征时根本就没房子住,随便找个地方就睡下了。)

  The audience was not interested at allin any sense in his long and boring speech.(观众对他那又臭又长的讲话一点都不感兴趣。)

  减词:

  I.和一些单词有关系的减词法1.省略范畴词:先看下面的例子:a.系里的领导来找他做说服工作。

  (The leader of the department came to him to the undertake the persuasion

  b.这次考试不及格,使他深切认识到写好作文在学习英文中的重要性。

  (The failure of this exam made him aware of the importance of writing in learning English.

  c.这本书的目的是改进学生们的理解能力。

  II. 表示逻辑关系上的减词:1.省去句子的主要结构只保留关联词:a. The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so the consumer should do this stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible.(商店的老板会建议顾客给制造商写信。要真是这样的话,顾客应该尽量把投诉书写的礼貌些、措辞更坚定一些。)

  b. And how can it be otherwise when the range of knowledge is so vast that the expert himself is an ignoramus as soon as he strays away from his own specialty. (可是不这样,有能有什么别的更好的办法呢?知识的范围如此广袤,一旦越出其专业范围,连专家也会变得一无所知。)

  c. It must be admitted that every nation has its strong points. If not how can it survive

  (每个民族都有它的优点,不然,怎么可以生存下来?)

  2.省去主语:d. When completed this bridge will be the largest in Asia. (这座桥一旦竣工将是亚洲最大的。)

  e. In some organization important papers letters speeches documents etcare kept on file so that they can be easily obtained when needed. (在许多组织里,重要的文件、信函、演讲材料、档案都保存在文件夹里,以便需要时很容易查到。)

自考英语翻译技巧六

翻译时句子成分的转换:

  英译汉时,有时为了通顺,往往需要将原文的某一句子成分转译成另一部分进行句子成分的转换:

  非主语转译成主语:

  定语译为主语a. If there should be any last-minute change in the sialing time we‘ll contact you by telephone.开船时间假如临时有更改,我们会用电话通知你。

  (状语译为主语)

  b. In many countries free-port areas or foreign-trade zones have been established where foreign merchants need not pay tariffs fort their unloaded goods if the goods remain within these areas or zones.许多国家都建立了自由港和保税区,在那里,外国商人只要是在本区内,未卸船的货物可以不纳税。

  c. The average temperature in summeris as hight as 35C. One can not be pleasant living in that place.夏天的平均温度高达摄氏35C,生活在那里不可能舒服。

  d. A good many new books were published by the Foreign Language Press last year.外文出版社去年出版了许多新书。

  谓语译为主语e. When a material is stressed byong the elastic limit a permaent deformation results.当一种材料的应力超过弹性极限时,就会产生永久变形。

  表语译为主语f. Television is different from radio in that its sends and receives pictures.电视和无线电的不同点在于电视能收发图象。

  宾语转译成主语g. The wise buyer finds ways to make sure that wrong thinking is not allowed to interfere with careful planning in this purchases.(明智的购买者尽量做到购买时不让错误的想法干扰。)

  His father flew into rage with what he had done.(他的所作所为让他的父亲大为光火。)

  被动 语态一般是,主谓语的位子翻译成汉语时需要颠倒,即原来的主语作宾语:

  h.Drastic action must be taken if they want to reduce traffic accidents and air pollution.(如果他们想减少交通事故和污染,就必须迅速采取措施。)

  i. I was totally upset by what he did in the exam.(他考试时的表现确实让我很担心。)

  j Asia was passed over by the industrial revolution.(工业革命没有光顾亚洲。)

  译成带的结构:

  k. We were moved to tears by the fact that he came to the meeting in spite of his illness.(最让我感激涕零的是,他带病坚持来开会。)

  译成:”“使等字引导的句子:

  l. His mother was dismissed due to the fact that she couldn‘t type fast enough.( 老板把他的妈妈给解雇了,因为他打字不够快。)

  m. She was worried because her son had written for a long time.( 她儿子很长时间没给她写信了,这可把她给担心坏了。)

  n. Wind is caused by air moving between cold and warm region.(风是由冷暖地区流动着的空气引起的。)

  非谓语转译成谓语:

  The new rule is applicable to foreigners.这一项新规定适用与外国人。(表语译为谓语)

  There is a need for improvement in your study habits你的学习习惯需要改进(主语译为谓语)

  非宾语转译成宾语:

  主语转译成宾语a. After he was elected chairman of the committee Mr. Smith was found working in the lab early in the morning.(史密斯当选以后, 人们发现他一大早就到办公室工作了。)

  b. Much progress has been made in computer science in less than a century. c. 不到一个世纪,计算机科学取得了很大进步。(主语译为宾语)How much risk does internationalizaion contain for national identity

  (一个国家会在国际化中会有丧失自己的危险吗?)

  主语译为宾语,状语译为主语The amounht of energy thus lost can be considerably reduced and the life of the macnine prolonged by careful lubrication. 小心加以润滑能大大地减少这样所损失的能量并延长机器寿命。

  状语译为宾语Materials to be used for strutural prupose are chosen so as too behave elastically in the environmental condition.结构上用的材料必须选择得使它们在周围环境条件下具有弹性。

  非定语转译为定语主语译为定语a. The service university is characterized by several features the existence of professional schools short tailor-made course contracting of services and funding by contracts.(大学提供服务的主要特征有以下几点:建立职业学校、短期培训学校以及提供服务与资助之间的合同签定等。 )

  b. The satellite system use this device in varied forms.卫星系统上的这种装置有各种不同的形状。(

  宾语转译成定语c. His speech on the current international economic situation produce the profound influence on research work of that subject.(他的关于目前国际经济形式的讲话,对我们的研究工作产生了很大的影响。

  状语译为定语d. In his composition he made few spelling mistakes.他在作文中的拼写错误很少。

  主语译为定语,谓语译为主语The communications system is chiefly characterized by its ease with which it can be maintained.这一通讯系统的主要特征是容易维修。

  非状语转译为状语

  宾语补足语译为状语a. Don‘t you see it was just in fun You got it all wrong.你没看出那不过是开开玩笑吗?你完全误解了。

  The professor showed her much attention and gave her some private coaching.教授对她很关心,给他一些个别辅导。(定语译为状语)

  主语转译成状语b. After that his youthful indifference to studies and his unwillingness to think of a nonsports career caught up with him.(在那之后,由于他年轻时候对学习毫不关心,以及不愿意考虑与运动无关的事情,他终于得到了报应。)

  定语转译成状语c. We need a dialogue which promotes our mutual responsibility to the international community.

  (我们需要对话来推进我们两国对国际社会所应承担的责任。)

  d. We need a dialogue that prevents any single issue form holding the entire relationship captive.(我们需要对话来防止任何有碍两国关系的事情发生。)

  e. His lack of interest in the project upset his colleagues who were trying every possible means to have it carried out.(他对该计划表露出了不感兴趣,这使得他的同事们很担心,因为他们正在尽一切办法来履行这项计划。)

  宾语译成状语:

  f. There is high probability that in the 21st century a good number of universities will excel in service rather than conventional academic research.(在21世纪,很多大学极有可能会在(大学提供)服务而不是传统的学术研究方面大显身手。)

  转译成谓语或者主谓结构:

  a. I would like to draw your attention to those sides of introduction of information technologies which can pose new problems for education.( 我想请大家注意的是,介绍信息技术会给教育提出一些新的问题。)

  b. The security and warmth of the destroyer‘s sick bay were wonderful.(驱逐舰的病房非常安全,同时,也非常温暖。)

自考英语翻译技巧七

翻译时句子结构的转换:

  在英译汉时有时需要将整个句子的结构转换。例如,把英语的简单句译成汉语的复合句,把一种从句译成另一种从句,把并列句译成复合句等,这主要是为了使译文通顺自然,符合汉语的习惯。

  转译成主从复合句1.简单句转译成复合句a. At the slightest improvement in my work they woiuld show warm approval.我工作梢有改进,他们就热情肯定。

  b. His wish is to become a doctor born of a desire to help sick people. 他之所以想当医生是因为他想帮助病人。

  c. With the boy leading the two started towards the village. 孩子在前面带路,两人朝村里走去。

  d. Now we have shown their srory to be false. 现在我们已经证明他们的这套话是虚假的。

  e. I have read of people living sevral weeks on nothing but a gladss of warter a day.我曾经从书报上看到过有人一连几个星期只靠一杯水维持生命。

  F. He differed from his workmates in spending his spare time reading. 他跟他的伙伴们不同,他把业余时间用在读书上了。

  并列句转译成复合句:有时,英语的几个小分句译成汉语后就变成了一个主从复和句,例如:

  a. Choosing the right career is very important. Most of us spend a great part of our lives at our jobs. For that reason we should try to find out what our talents are and how we can use them. (选则适合自己的工作是很重要的,因为工作占据了我们一生中的大部分时间,所以,我们应尽可能认识一下自己的天赋在什么地方以及怎么样发挥等。)

  分词短语还原译成复合句:b. People exposed to bright red show an increase in heartbeatand blood pressure red is exciting. (如果将人暴露给红颜色,他们就会显露出心跳加快、血压增高等;红颜色让人兴奋。)

  c. Those living in countries with long dark winters are apt to be less talkative and less vivacious than inhabitants of countries where the climate is more equable(稳定的)。

  (一些人如果生活在有漫长、灰暗冬天的农村比起气候稳定地区的人来说较容易沉默寡言,也不活泼。)

  短语转译成主从复合句a. He always tries his utmost to extend help to others whenever necessary.(不管什么时候,只要有可能,他都会帮助别人。)

  b. If pressed further they would become angry. (如果追问急了,他们会很生气的。)

  c. Although he didn ‘t like his job Bill didn’t want to disappoint his wife by giving up his well-paid new position. (尽管不喜欢他的工作,可他不想放弃,因为那样会让他的妻子很失望。)

  d. Something fell in for I heard a splash.有东西掉进去了,因为我听到扑通一声。

  e. This machine is simple in design yet it is efficient in operation.虽然这台机器结构简单,但功效很高。

  2.复合句转译成简单句While I sympathize I can‘t really do very much to help.我真是爱莫能助。

  This is what the molecular frmula means.这就是此分子式的含义。

  There ‘s something thatyou don ’t know. 这些事你不知道。

  I must get down to work tonight as I ‘ve got exams next week. 今晚我得开始认真复习功课,下星期要考试了。

  This cause the construction of gigantic buildings where too large masses of human beings are crowded together.这样就盖起了许许多多聚居的高楼大厦。

  When we praise the Chinese leadership and the people we are not merely being polite.(我们赞美中国领导人和中国人民不仅仅是出于礼貌。)

  3.转译成并列句主从复合句转译成并列句a. It couldn‘t have happened except that it did.按理说,那是不会发生的,但却发生了。

  Besides that the teacher explained the theory he gave the students a lot of examples.教师不仅讲解了理论,而且还给学生举了许多例子。

  b. While wheels have brought better and more convenient transportation they have also brought new and unforeseen problems. (轮子带来了更便利的交通手段,可也带来了新的、原来没有过的问题。)

  独立结构译成并列句:a. With the job finished they went to the seaside for a holiday.(工作做完以后,他们就到海边度假去了。)

  b. With all his savings gone he started to look for a job.(积蓄都用完以后,他就开始去找工作。)

  简单句转译成并列句:He was terribly frightened. He had no gun in the shop. His only weapon was the pair of scissors he used for cutting cloth.(他一下子给吓懵了,店里有没有武器,唯一有的就是剪布用的一把剪刀。)

  3.副词译成介词短语:And although you may not like it if she chooses your doorway as her place to sleep in the night it is morally hard to turn her away as it is a lost dog.(不管你喜不喜欢,如果她把你家的门廊作为她晚间栖息的场所,从道义上讲,你很难将她赶走,这就象很难赶走一个丧家犬一样。)

  4.不同种类从句的相互转换Electonic computers which have many advantgages cannot carry out creative work and replace man.虽然电子计算机有很多优点,但它们不能进行创造性工作,因此代替不了人。(定语译成状语)

  Gases are different from solic in that the former have greater comprssibililty than the latter. 气体不同与固体,因为气体比固体有更大的压缩性(定语从句译为状语从句)